Depression consist of the following symptoms : loss of energy, loss of activities
and in life, sadness, loss of appetite and weight, difficulty concentrating, feeling
hopeless, social withdrawal, irritability and suicidal thoughts.
Clinical Depression varies from mild, moderate or severe.

WHAT CAUSES DEPRESSION?

A number of different factors can cause depression. These factors can be due
to biochemical, interpersonal, behavioural or cognitive. Biochemical factors
refers to your family‘s genetic preposition and brain chemistry. Losses in
interpersonal relationships stress and might also cause depression. The way we
think can also cause depression.

BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS IN DEPRESSION:

• LOSS
• LACK OF REWARDING BEHAVIOURS
• SELFLESSNESS
• LACK OF PROBLEM SOLVINGS OR SOCIAL SKILLS
• CHANGE IN WORK, RELATIONSHIP, BECOMING A PARENT
• FEELING NOT GOOD ENOUGH IN YOUR CURRENT SITUATION IN LIFE
• FEELING REJECTED BY OTHERS
The above mentioned factors can make you prone to depression, but will not
necessarily result in depression.

COGNITIVE FACTORS IN DEPRESSION:

• NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS:

These thoughts come spontaneously and reflect distorted perceptions. They are
often associated with negative feelings for e.g. sadness, anger anxiety and
hopelessness.
Examples:
• Mind reading
• Labelling
• Fortunetelling
• All or nothing thinking
• Discounting positives

MALADAPTIVE ASSUMPTIONS:

These thoughts include ideas about what people think they SHOULD BE
DOING.
Examples:
• “ I should get the approval of everyone
• “ I can never be happy doing things on my own
• “ I should criticize myself for my failures

TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION:

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY:

CBT treats people with depression by identifying their behaviours and way of
thinking. Your Psychologist will help you to look at your actions and thoughts
that contribute to your feelings of depression.
Psychotherapy can provide you with the right tools to think more realistically
and feel better.

ASSESSMENT FOR DEPRESSION:

BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCALE
• LOCK – WALLACE MARITAL ADJUSTMENT TEST
• PAI ( Personality Assessment Inventory )

EFFECTIVENESS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY:

Research studies throughout the world have consistently demonstrated that
cognitive behavioural therapy is one of the most effective forms of therapy for
treating depression. The combination of Medication and CBT increases the
efficacy to 85%.

CBT will help you to reduce your symptoms of depression, but will also help you
to keep those symptoms of recurring.

MEDICATION:

Medication has been found to be effective in treating depression. It takes 2- 4
weeks for the medication to get into your system. Side effects may only be
temporary and will get better with time. In some severe cases of depression
some Physician might refer you for an ECT (electro convulsive therapy).

EXPECTATIONS OF THE PATIENT:

• Active participation in CBT
Commitment in Psychotherapy ( once a week )
• Willingness to evaluate your depression
• Home work exercises to modify your behaviour
• Trust that although you might feel hopeless, that there is a good
chance that your depression will lift with this treatment.